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42                                 SHIPPING PRACTICE

If, for example, an owner informs his broker that he has
a ship expected ready at Benisaf on the soth of December
and asks what business can be obtained from Benisaf to a
U.K. port, the broker will have a rough idea of the current
rate ruling. He will certainly not let his owner fix his ship,
for example, from Benisaf to Workington at 493. when the
last rate was 493. gd., unless, of course, the market has
suddenly fallen away.

Before proceeding to describe the contents of a charter-
party and the meaning of clauses, there are several types of
"days" which are mentioned in chartering, and definitions
of these are—

LAY DAYS. Days agreed for loading and discharge. They
may be separated into days for loading and days for dis-
charge, or if agreed a total taken for the two operations,
when days are then known as reversible lay days. This is
the time allowed under the charter-party, and a note of the
agreed number of days will be shown in the charter-party.

WEATHER WORKING DAYS. Days for loading and dis-
charge when the weather permits. Where weather working
days are allowed, and work is commenced, time ceases to
count if the work is held up owing to bad weather, or if
weather makes the possibility of a start impracticable for
the day. This applies only when work would otherwise be
carried on.

RUNNING DAYS. Consecutive days, counting all days—
Saturdays, Sundays, Bank Holidays, etc., the same.

WOKKING DAYS. In England a day of eight hours con-
stitutes a working day, therefore a 24 hour day would be
considered as three working days (if work is continuous),
but in foreign countries this would alter according to
the number of hours which constitute a working day in
such places.

Charter-parties are known under different titles, some
serving the purpose of a particular trade. In many cases
a short title or code name is allotted for quick and short
references. Here are a few examples of well-known charter-
parties—